MORAL COURAGE – Are You Ready To Join the Vaccine Truth Movement?

By Elissa Meininger – Health Policy Analyst

Few men are willing to brave the disapproval of their fellows, the censure of their colleagues, the wrath of their society. Moral courage is a rarer commodity than bravery in battle or great intelligence. Yet it is the one essential, vital quality of those who seek to change a world which yields most painfully to change. Sen. Robert F. Kennedy Sr.

I wanted to start this article with a quote that stirs my spirit.  These words and sentiments were spoken on June 6, 1968, in a speech known as the “Day of Affirmation” by Senator Robert F. Kennedy, Sr., in Capetown, South Africa.  He was there to support efforts to end apartheid.   To put this moment into perspective, apartheid was repealed a quarter century later thanks to the moral courage of a few public figures willing to risk everything and the massive public support of the thousands and thousands of nameless individuals who were willing to stand up to be counted.

Sen. Kennedy’s words stir my spirit because we are living in turbulent times, at the moment, and I believe we will look back on these times and remember who stood up at great personal risk for what was right in regards to the vaccination issue.  We will also remember what we did or didn’t do to support them.

To us longtime Health Freedom Fighters,  the most pressing health issue of today is the deadly risk of vaccinations.  We have known for decades that the CDC is a corrupt government agency that is running out of control because it is basically run by Big Pharma for the industry’s financial benefit alone.

When Donald Trump ran for President, we could hardly believe he actually said out loud, “vaccines cause autism”.  We all know that, but for a public figure to actually say that out loud was a dream we had never dared to dream.

Then the next impossible dream came to life.  Trump, a Populist, met with Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., a member of the much revered and very liberal Kennedy dynasty, to forge an alliance.  It would be Kennedy’s job to get to the bottom of the cesspool of corruption at the Centers For Disease Control and “let the science speak”.  It was understood by both these unlikely allies that the science the CDC was using to promote vaccines was thoroughly corrupt.

Let us not forget that while there are many miracles that come from the science of the chemical/pharmaceutical  industry, this industry also produced the deadly gases used in WWI to kill and maim ordinary soldiers on the battlefield.  This same industry backed Hitler in WWII and produced the gas that was used to exterminate millions of people in death camps.

Sad to say, despite the IG Farben War Crimes Trial at Nuremberg after the War, many of these same chemical companies still exist, and others have come into being to be part of a global empire we loosely call Big Pharma, now one of the most powerful industries in the world.

Harsh Facts…

What we didn’t learn from the IG Farben “Crimes Against Humanity Trial” is that when private interests become partnered with public policy, it is not surprising that we end up with the level of appalling crookedness we now see in the vaccine industry.

Please do not minimize the personal risks both Kennedy and Trump are taking by going up against Big Pharma’s biggest cash cow: VACCINES. 

This market is quite literally out of control.  To dig deep into how this industry is run means Mr. Kennedy will end up finding massive corruption at every level intermingled with malfeasance  in every federal agency that is involved with vaccines.

As I provide a short inventory of Mr. Kennedy’s progress so far, please ask yourself, “how can I help?”.  Real change WILL NOT COME without millions of us standing up to be counted once the truth is laid bare.

After Kennedy accepted his assignment, he fired up his website www.worldmercuryproject.org and video-taped a pledge that he would pour all his efforts up to his last breath of life to make sure that the next generation of children would grow up healthy.   This video will tear your heart out.  He has the same courage of his father and his uncle in their gladiator commitment to work for things they believed in.  When Mr. Kennedy achieves truth and justice in regards vaccine policy and law, we may see his contribution to society eclipse those of his other family members.  His work is that important for the future health of all Americans!

With breathtaking speed, Kennedy has accomplished more to dig up the dirt to educate the public on the problems with vaccines than anyone has ever done before.

Meanwhile, President Trump is doing his part as well. 

Continue reading MORAL COURAGE – Are You Ready To Join the Vaccine Truth Movement?

CDC – A Garden of Misinformation About the Prevention and Treatment of Malaria, and More…

By Elissa Meininger – Health Policy Analyst

Being a journalist who looks to history as a primary source of information, I often ask myself what were they thinking? or what’s wrong with this picture?   

So, let’s ask, “What’s Wrong With The CDC Picture?

In the world of dealing with malaria, a topic I was researching for an article, I came up with some astounding information which I want to share with you.  But, first, you need to put on what I call your “clear-eyed grandma’s thinking cap” so you can apply common sense to what you are reading.

On the CDC website, I found a story about a fellow who came down with a very serious case of malaria after traveling abroad.

The CDC gleefully featured his situation in an article to trash homeopathy as a valid way to prevent and treat malaria.  The article clearly stated “homeopathic medications are not regulated by the federal Food and Drug Administration”.  THIS IS NOT TRUE.  By an act of Congress in 1938, homeopathic drugs have been regulated by the FDA!  

So much for accuracy.

The CDC failed to mention the brand name of the homeopathic formula this man used so we have no idea what the real situation is.  There are several ways to prevent and treat malaria using various homeopathic  formulas.  In this regard, the CDC’s prescription drug recommendation for malaria this fellow rejected was mefloquine also called melfloquine hydrochloride.  It’s brand name is Lariam.  The CDC explains in a two-page downloadable doc about mefloquine  which includes useful information about the drug including the notation that mefloquine no longer works in Southeast Asia.

The CDC recommended drug mefloquine  “No longer works in the place where malaria starts?”

And they recommend it?

Other useful tidbits of information includes potential side effects such as dizziness, difficulty sleeping, anxiety, vivid dreams, visual seizures, depression, and psychosis.  It can also cause stomach pain, nausea, diarrhea and vomiting.

In a quick googling on the net, I found a brisk business in lawsuits from unhappy users of this mefloquine drug.

On the Rottenstein Law Group  LLP website I found the following information:

 Lariam Psychiatric & Suicidal Side Effect

“Research shows the anti-malaria drug mefloquine hydrochloride—formerly sold under the brand name Lariam—might cause psychiatric abnormalities, suicidal ideations and behaviors, and potentially permanent nerve damage. Because of these psychiatric side effects, the drug’s manufacturer, Hoffmann-La Roche, pulled it from the market in 2008. The U.S. Army continued to administer it to soldiers, however, until 2011, when the army ceased prescribing Lariam even for soldiers deployed in malaria-prone regions such as Afghanistan. In July 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) notified the public that mefloquine products’ drug labels would be updated with a black box warning—the agency’s most serious kind—concerning the aforementioned side effects.

What Is Lariam and What Is It Prescribed For?

Once prescribed to treat acute malaria infections, Lariam is the brand name for the drug mefloquine hydrochloride, a synthetic analogue to the ancient anti-malaria drug quinine (quinine sulfate). How it works is still not understood, but it is believed to be toxic to the parasites that cause malaria. It reduces the intense, debilitating shivering that malaria causes.

Read more

View Lariam updates

See other lawsuits in:

Dangerous Drugs

Although the U.S. Army discovered and began using mefloquine since the 1970s, Hoffmann-LaRoche didn’t receive U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to market Lariam until 1989. The company pulled Lariam in 2008, however. Until then, it came in the form of 250 mg oral tablets taken weekly to prevent malaria infection. Upon diagnosis, malaria patients would begin taking five pills at a time.

Lariam Might Cause Suicidal Ideations and Behavior Side Effects

The FDA documented cases of individuals who took the drug and later reported the following symptoms, even after treatment concluded:

Restlessness; Confusion; Unusual behavior; Severe anxiety; Paranoia; Hallucinations; Depression; and Suicidal ideation.

An Associated Press story reported that U.S. Military personnel claimed to have experienced the following additional symptoms:

Nightmares; “Complete mental breakdowns”; Short-term memory lossPermanent damage to one’s sense of balance; and Army studies claimed the rate of psychiatric problems was one per 2,000-13,000, but Army Major and epidemiologist, Dr. Remington Nevin, published research showing that Lariam might be toxic to the brain, which causes the psychiatric and suicidal symptoms.

Finally, the FDA’s July 2013 drug safety communication included the following adverse side effects:

DizzinessRinging in the ears, Convulsions or seizures, Insomnia

The FDA advises that these side effects can continue for months or years after mefloquine treatment ends.

And There Is More……

Continue reading CDC – A Garden of Misinformation About the Prevention and Treatment of Malaria, and More…

Real Health Care Reform – Cliff Notes Version…

Part 1 – Getting Real About Health Care Reform…..

 by Elissa Meininger – Health Policy Analyst

Folks, one of my big gripes about talking about health care reform is that nobody really knows much beyond their small area of interest.

These days, it pretty much boils down to “How much will I have to pay?” “I have a preexisting condition.  Will it still be covered?”  “Can I keep the doctors I like?”    Me, I don’t use the allopathic health care system because what they offer is of no help to me.  I go to the alternative.  It’s much cheaper, safer and more effective.

Almost nobody knows much about how the system got into such a costly, bureaucratic and ineffective mess.  For me, as an historian specializing on the politics of natural healing arts, I think it is very important for people to know what happened so we can see what Trump will have to do to fix it.

Just so you know….

Two landmarks related to how things are paid for are……

The New Deal – which introduced third party payment schemes that your employer buys for you and calls health “insurance”….

The Great Society – and the intrusion of government into deciding all aspects of what products and services you are allowed  to have and how much they’d cost.  As for who really runs the system – BIG PHARMA!

If you’ll hang in here with me,

I’d like to give you the Cliff Notes version of how we got from a free-market (read affordable), state-of-the-art medical system in Colonial America to the over-priced, chemical-dependent monopoly and rationed care system we now have.  Then I’d like to speculate as to what will happen when Trump’s ideas become a reality.

What Our Founding Fathers Had In Mind…

In Colonial Times, most people were treated at home and thanks to the efforts of Benjamin Franklin, the first hospital was built in Philadelphia to take care of the poor.  Historian Daniel Boorstin said that the mortality rate at this hospital was half the rate of any hospital in Europe.  Thomas Jefferson said that the natural health care we offered here in the states was superior to medicine in Europe.   Until after WWII, most hospitals were run by religious groups or by local communities.

Until the end of WWII, the American health care system was a free market affair where patients had complete control of who they did business with and how much they paid for services. 

Yes, plenty of chickens and various other goods and services often paid the bill.  Charities helped the poor.  In fact, until the turn of the 20th Century, there were no monopoly regulations to restrict who actually practiced medicine.  Most practices were botanical in nature and in this free market for health care, Osteopathy, Chiropractic, Eclectic Medicine, Thomsonian Medicine and other new, creative systems of healing emerged to meet market demand.

Allopathy, which is the kind the AMA doctors practice, was either avoided, or shunned altogether, by members of many religious sects such as Christian Science, Church of the Latter Day Saints, Church of the First Born, Seventh Day Adventists etc., in favor of prayer, diet and more natural means, as spelled out in the bible.

John Wesley, Founder of Methodism, published a medical book called Primitive Physick or An Easy and Natural Method of Curing Most Diseases and he and his parishioners, as an expression of their faith, provided medical care to the poor.

Allopaths were still stuck with bloodletting and use of toxic medications such as arsenic and strychnine.

A high dose of mercury was considered the magic bullet for everything.  All these treatments were miserable to endure, destroyed health and also often led to a premature death.  These treatments were based on a medical philosophy called humorism  that dated back to ancient Greece.

Homeopaths started coming to America in 1825 and presented the Allopathic community with particular difficulties.  Homeopaths were educated people who practiced a medical system totally alien to Allopathy.    Their success with epidemic diseases was one of several reasons they became a real challenge to members of the AMA.  Based on actual public death records of epidemics, it was obvious Allopaths hadn’t a clue how to nurse people back to health, much less help patients avoid illness in the first place.

Forced Schooling to Condition People to Accept Government Authority —

You might wonder why I’m suddenly talking about public schools in the middle of an article about health care.  Stay with me, folks.  You’ll see the connection in a minute.

In the early 1800s, Prussia and surrounding German states were going through big changes.  First, Prussia suffered a major defeat in the Napoleonic Wars that led to the idea they needed to raise a well-organized army.  To do that, they decided they needed to establish a compulsory school system to create obedient soldiers.

Since Prussia and much of Europe were already in the throes of experiencing the Industrial Age, the Prussian school model’s goals, as described by school historian, John Taylor Gatto, were to train: 1) Obedient soldiers to the army; 2) Obedient workers for mines, factories, and farms; 3) Well-subordinated civil servants, trained in their function; 4) Well-subordinated clerks for industry; 5) Citizens who thought alike on most issues; 6) National uniformity in thought, word, and deed.

These goals, of course, were opposite from the way Americans thought, and forcing public schooling on a population that was already extremely literate by their own initiative, was unnecessary, except for the fact the powers that be wanted to create a conformist society here in America.  Marx once said, The first battlefield is the rewriting of history.”   Forced schooling was established before the turn of the 20th Century here in America.

In the 1930s, Socialist John Dewey became honorary president of the National Education Association then proceeded to rewrite the goals of the NEA. As he said,  “You can’t make socialists out of individuals.  Children who know how to think for themsleves spoil the harmony of the collective society, which is coming, where everyone is interdependent.”

Teaching Civics was dropped from the national curricula.

Hmmm… no teaching about the history of how we were endowed by our Creator to be able to run our own lives and/or how government is supposed to protect our liberties and the Constitution clearly defines the limits of government power…..????

To help you keep your eye on the ball, here’s what John D. Rockefeller had to say, “I don’t want a nation of thinkers.  I want a nation of workers”   Rockefeller’s money was key to creating the American medical monopoly as you will learn more about below.

Big Pharma Is Born – Vaccines Take Center Stage…

Continue reading Real Health Care Reform – Cliff Notes Version…

FDA FOLLIES – Dental Amalgams…

The issue of the corruption in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is so huge, this is the first of several articles I’m writing to expose the agency’s large contribution to “the swamp” in Washington.

By Elissa Meininger – Health Policy Analyst

 

The swamp Trump promises to clean up.   If you have even one “silver” filling in your teeth, this one’s for you.

So-called “silver” fillings are 52% mercury

Below is part of a 2011 article posted by  Charlie Brown, head of Consumers For Dental Choice , and mastermind behind years of legal action to force the FDA to follow the law.  It offers a bird’s eye view of how the FDA operates.

FDA’S Thirty Two Years of Concealing Amalgam’s  Mercury From You...


I. Captive of corporate America:  the US Food & Drug Administration

The United States Food and Drug Administration, once the world’s “gold standard” for food, drug, and device regulation, has evolved from industry regulator to industry captive. 

Political scientists are not surprised –  The evolution from tough regulator to passive regulator to industry captive is a pattern in Washington.  Unless an agency engages in a major system of reinvigoration, the spiral continues.  But FDA seems comfortable being the hand-maiden for industry; it has brought big bucks to the agency and lucrative jobs after time at FDA.

The big bucks are in FDA’s pay-to-play approval system.  Drug companies pay seven-figure amounts into FDA coffers to gain approval of their drugs. FDA staff knows that the cash means higher salaries and more perks in the agency budget.  The drug companies know the high fees prevent small competitors with good ideas from getting their products to market.  The coziness between FDA and major drug and device companies gets tighter, while innovative entrepreneurs are shut out and the public loses twice: good drugs aren’t being considered and controversial drugs are rubber-stamped.

Another bitter legacy of federal regulation is the “revolving door,” where insiders bounce between well-paid positions in industry to high-ranking FDA positions that regulate that industry.  Those in the political party out of power hold cushy jobs awaiting their return to power, at which point – in the game of Washington musical chairs – those in the party leaving power in turn take the high-paying jobs in industry.  The current FDA Commissioner, Margaret Hamburg, coming to FDA from Henry Schein, Inc., the largest seller of dental products and a major seller of medical products too, is a perfect example.  Hamburg was a high official in the Clinton Administration, so Schein’s CEO Stanley Bergman, an active Democrat, tapped Hamburg for the light work of being a board member during the Bush II years, paying her millions of dollars to sit in meetings and file occasional reports.  When Bergman’s party returned to power in 2009, he escorted Hamburg back through the revolving door – as Commissioner of the world’s most powerful food and drug regulator, FDA.

II. FDA covers up amalgam’s mercury from consumers – for 32 years…

Continue reading FDA FOLLIES – Dental Amalgams…

Hey, President Trump. Let’s Get Real About Infectious Disease Policy…

by Elissa Meininger – Health Policy Analyst

I wanted y’all to see what I sent to President Trump as well as my Oklahoma elected officials as part of the national Revolution For Truth campaign.

Dear President Trump:

As a longtime health policy analyst, I am delighted that there is talk that Robert F. Kennedy, Jr., would be officially asked to look into the swamp at the CDC.   It is time to expose what is going on, particularly the cover-up depicted in the film, VAXXED: Coverup to Catastrophe.  Kennedy is a perfect choice for this job.  One only needs to read his article Deadly Immunity, published 12 years ago about the Simpsonwood scandal, to see the measure of his courage, commitment and understanding of the task.

WE’VE ALREADY HAD A 10-YEAR STUDY ON THE CRAP GOING ON AT THE CDC.  LET’S SEE SOME ACTION, THIS TIME!

As one who has researched and written about the failure of our health care system to truly serve the public interest, I suggest you make sure that Mr. Kennedy spends some quality time with former U.S. Representative Dan Burton, who was head of the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee which held 10 years of hearings on mercury in vaccines and dental amalgams.

It is important to note, that after the conclusion of those hearings, head counsel for the hearings, Liz Birt, wrote a report on July 15, 2005, to Lauren Fuller, Chief Investigative Counsel for Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) Committee, to provide Burton’s committee findings of a cover up regarding Thimerisol (mercury).

  1. FDA: Criminal Negligence in failure to regulate the safety and effectiveness of biological products.
  2. HHS, CDC, and FDA: Criminal negligence in the failure to regulate and promote vaccines as provided for under the National Vaccine Injury Act.
  3. FDA: Criminal negligence in not instituting a Class I recall of all vaccines administered to infants containing in July of 1999 and again in June of 2000 when the results of the VSD were discussed at Simpsonwood.
  4. HHS, FDA, CDC and ACIP employees and contractors: Criminal conspiracy to defraud the government by deception or artifice and to obstruct the wholesome administration of the laws and affairs of the United States.
  5. HHS, FDA CDC, ACIP employees and contractors: Criminal obstruction of justice.

What I fear is that Mr. Kennedy will be engaging in another 10 years of high profile hearings as Rep. Burton conducted, and still nothing will change.

LET’S FACE IT.  INFECTIOUS DISEASE POLICY IS DESIGNED FOR THE $$$ BENEFIT OF BIG PHARMA – NOT US…

The plain fact of the matter is that our infectious disease policy, from the beginning of the 20th Century, was designed for the financial benefit of the drug industry with no regard for what was good for the general public.

I call your attention to an article I recently published on the BolenReport entitled, Is This the End of Vaccines?  In it, I provided the history of how homeopathy, in particular, has been systematically excluded from not just our medical system as a whole, but specifically excluded from consideration in any part of our infectious disease policy.  This exclusion was done, quite deliberately, to create a need for vaccines, which were invented at the end of the 1800s.  Unlike homeopathic products, vaccines are patentable so they make an ideal and very profitable array of products for international trade.

Continue reading Hey, President Trump. Let’s Get Real About Infectious Disease Policy…

Is This The End Of Vaccines?

By Elissa Meininger – Health Policy Analyst

 

While the media is having a field day reporting fake news, no real reporters (if there are any left) are covering the single most important medical issue of today.  Are vaccines the best way to deal with infectious diseases?

Right now, at the request of President Trump, Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. is organizing a way for responsible people to investigate the scientific fraud that is going on at the CDC regarding the safety and effectiveness of vaccines.  If you are unaware of this project, you might want to check out the press conference Kennedy held at the National Press Club recently that the mainstream press didn’t attend.

The real issue is that vaccines have never been the safest and the best way to deal with epidemic diseases.  How they became promoted as the great savior of humanity is largely an untold story until now.

Continue reading Is This The End Of Vaccines?

Whoever Makes Your Medical Decisions Owns You…

The single most important issue in HEALTH CARE REFORM today is NOT how the bill is paid but WHAT WE ARE BUYING.

Opinion By Elissa Meininger – Health Policy Analyst

 

US Health Care Reform?…

In that regard, the Number One, Numero Uno, #1 issue is vaccines.

Unless you have been living in a cave, you must know that there is a “battle royale” going on about how vaccines are the cause of autism, and more.

You will notice I didn’t say “IF.”

If you are still one of the millions of Americans who shudder with fear imagining a world without vaccines and all you see is death and destruction as the result, then this article is meant especially for you.

Know this…

There are four basic opinions about vaccines.

(1) Those who think they are God’s gift to mankind and everyone MUST take them, no exceptions.

(2)  The second group also sees vaccines as miracle drugs but have the odd idea that we have an inherent right to make our own decisions about what we put in our bodies, and that that inherent right extends to the idea that parents are in charge of caring for their children – not some government bureaucrat running a village bypassing parental participation.

(3)  The third group believes the jury is still out on vaccine safety and effectiveness.

(4)  The fourth group, rarely mentioned, are those who aren’t sold on why people should resort to vaccinating at all because there are other time tested and proven ways of staving off epidemics and death from various diseases.

The discussion about vaccinations is so explosive, it is taboo to have a rational discussion in the media about them.

If something happens to hit the airwaves, like comments made by MDs Rand Paul and Ben Carson, who basically said they had issues with the schedule of children’s mandated shots, media commentators reminded their audiences that vaccines had been proven perfectly safe and these two doctors must be misinformed. In fact any discussion in public must start with “I believe in vaccinations, I vaccinated all my kids” just to get any traction at all.

Only Donald Trump has dared to speak his mind.

Continue reading Whoever Makes Your Medical Decisions Owns You…

Homeopathy – An Easier, Nicer, LEGAL, More Effective Path to Immunization…

by Hildegard von Bingen (non-de-plume)

What Exactly is this Nontoxic Approach for Disease Prevention?  

Homeoprophylaxis— also known as Homeopathic prophylaxis or even “HP”–  is a nontoxic method of disease prevention in use since 1799.  The term “homeo” means “like or similar”—note that it does not mean “same”, only similar.

“Prophylaxis” refers to the prevention of a disease.  Homeopathy is an energetic form of medicine.  It utilizes the energies found in plant, animal, and mineral sources to promote healing and wellness.  In like manner, when homeopathy is used as a prophylactic, it utilizes an energetic form of the disease to promote immunity.  It has been documented to do this with about 90% success.  The body is exposed to an energetic form of the disease and is found to respond appropriately, “as if” it had been exposed to the disease itself.  Thus, all the benefits of natural disease are derived without any of the risks. 

Let’s define, as well, what a “vaccine” is.  The idea of inserting a particle of a disease into the body to promote an immunological response has technically been done for about a thousand years (1), not always successfully.  During Edward Jenner’s time, he noted how milkmaids, who were around cows all the time, did not seem to get the horrid smallpox.  He noted that cows would get a similar disease, known as cowpox, and postulated that it was perhaps this exposure to cowpox that prevented smallpox  in milkmaids.  Thus began his fussing about with the pus of cowpox to provide immunity to smallpox in people. From this came the term, “vaccine”, from the Latin word, vacca, for cow. Mass vaccination for smallpox was later discontinued in the U.S. due to many cases of brain damage as a result of the vaccine, as well as the virtual disappearance of smallpox. (2)

Let’s look even a bit more deeply into all of this. Continue reading Homeopathy – An Easier, Nicer, LEGAL, More Effective Path to Immunization…

Why Do We Need Vaccines?

by Hildegard von Bingen

It had to happen sooner or later.  BolenReport Authors and articles are first rate, so, of course we attracted an official Roman Catholic Church Saint to write for us…

 

Let us consider the picture: Disease is something that happens that nobody likes.  It can be very dangerous.  Every year, untold lives are ended prematurely and unpleasantly because of disease.

What can be done to prevent disease is a question pondered by people of medicine since time began.

No one likes to get sick, no parent likes to see their child suffer, diseases can be dangerous—and, with the vaccine, science today claims to have found an approach that fulfills its expressed purpose.  Because of what they tell us, the public has grown to not question the holy sacrament of vaccination.  Indeed, neither have the scientists, who are currently working on hundreds more vaccines intended to be “fast tracked” upon the public (1).  Vaccines are credited with the eradication of many diseases.  But let’s take a closer look at what has actually happened.  What do the facts really tell us?  What have we not been told?

Are Vaccines Necessary 

Injecting foreign proteins into the human body is a medical intervention.  We know that medical error constitutes the third leading cause of death in the United States. (2) With the convenience of the internet and readily available information, word is getting out. Medical science doesn’t have all the answers. Continue reading Why Do We Need Vaccines?